The Brad Kaminsky Foundation
In Memory of: Brad Kaminsky, Lisa Lewis Gibson, Robert (Bob) Lee Carter, Jr.

Also in Remembrance of: Susanne McMillan, Dan McNally, Tony Leonard, Andy Lewis, William Keyser, Diane Wyatt, Gregory Weiss, James McKenzie, Geoff Kornman, Brian Bedell, Joseph Gray, Mary Haller, Johnathan Hicks, Josie Chiang and all our Angels.

The Brad Kaminsky Foundation for Brain Tumor Research
20227 Catlett Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
(703) 729-9897
E-mail DNL1231@aol.com.

Information about Brain Tumors

Disclaimer: This information is for educational purposes only. We cannot assume responsibility for its accuracy. Please, obtain information about your condition from your Doctor. The Brad Kaminsky Foundation does not endorse any service, treatment, institution or physician

Information About The Brain / Possible Causes / Types Of Brain Tumors / Symptoms / Diagnostic Tools
Treatments / Clinical Trials / Follow Up Care / Medical Definitions

Medical Definitions


(ah-KOOS-tik): Having to do with sound or hearing.


(an-ah-PLAS-tik): A term used to describe cancer cells that divide rapidly and bear little or no resemblance to normal cells. angiogram (AN-jee-o-gram): An x-ray of blood vessels; the person receives an injection of dye to outline the vessels on the x-ray. anticonvulsants (an-tee-kon-VUL-sants): Drugs that prevent, reduce, or stop convulsions or seizures.


(as-tro-sye-TOE-mas): A tumor that begins in the brain or spinal cord in small, star-shaped cells called astrocytes. ataxic gait (ah-TAK-sik): Awkward, uncoordinated walking. benign (beh-NINE): Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body. biological therapy (by-o-LAHJ-i-kul): Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune system to fight infection and disease. Also used to lessen side effects that may be caused by some cancer treatments. Also known as immunotherapy, biotherapy, or biological response modifier (BRM) therapy. biopsy (BY-ahp-see): The removal of cells or tissues for examination under a microscope. When only a sample of tissue is removed, the procedure is called an incisional biopsy or core biopsy. When an entire tumor or lesion is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. When a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle, the procedure is called a needle biopsy or fine-needle aspiration. bone marrow: The soft, sponge-like tissue in the center of bones that produces white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Bone Marrow Transplantation

(trans-plan-TAY-shun): A procedure to replace bone marrow destroyed by treatment with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation. Transplantation may be autologous (an individual's own marrow saved before treatment), allogeneic (marrow donated by someone else), or syngeneic (marrow donated by an identical twin).

Brain Stem

The part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord.

Brain Stem Glioma

(glee-O-ma): A tumor located in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem). It may grow rapidly or slowly, depending on the grade of the tumor.

Central Nervous System

CNS. The brain and spinal cord.


(sair-uh-BELL-um): The portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the brain stem. The cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing, and other complex motor functions.

Cerebral Hemispheres

(seh-REE-bral HEM-iss-feerz): The two halves of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions of the body and also controls speech, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls muscle movement on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls muscle movement on the right side of the body.

Cerebrospinal Fluid

(seh-REE-bro-SPY-nal): CSF. The fluid flowing around the brain and spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles in the brain.


(seh-REE-brum): The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. The cerebrum controls muscle functions of the body and also controls speech, emotions, reading, writing, and learning.


(kee-mo-THER-a-pee): Treatment with anticancer drugs.

Clinical Trial

A research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other interventions work in people. Each study is designed to test new methods of screening, prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease.


(KRAY-nee-o-fah-rin-jee-O-ma): A benign brain tumor that may be considered malignant because it can damage the hypothalamus, the area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.


(kray-nee-AH-toe-mee): An operation in which an opening is made in the skull. CT scan: Computed tomography scan. A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan.


(eh-DEE-ma): Swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues.


(en-KAP-soo-lay-ted): Confined to a specific, localized area and surrounded by a thin layer of tissue.


Brain tumors that usually begin in the central canal of the spinal cord. Ependymomas may also develop in the cells lining the ventricles of the brain, which produce and store the special fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) that protects the brain and spinal cord. Also called ependymal tumors.

Gamma Knife

Radiation therapy in which high-energy rays are aimed at a tumor from many angles in a single treatment session.

Germ Cell Tumors

Tumors that begin in the cells that give rise to sperm or eggs. They can occur virtually anywhere in the body and can be either benign or malignant. germinoma (jer-mih-NO-ma): The most frequent type of germ-cell tumor in the brain.

Glioblastoma Multiforme

(glee-o-blas-TOE-ma mul-tih-FOR-may): A type of brain tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain. It grows very quickly and has cells that look very different from normal cells. Also called grade IV astrocytoma.


(glee-O-ma): A cancer of the brain that comes from glial, or supportive, cells. hair follicles (FOL-i-kuls): Shafts or openings on the surface of the skin through which hair grows.


(hye-dro-SEF-uh-lus): The abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.


(hye-per-THER-mee-a): A type of treatment in which body tissue is exposed to high temperatures to damage and kill cancer cells or to make cancer cells more sensitive to the effects of radiation and certain anticancer drugs.


(hye-po-THAL-uh-mus): The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.

Immune System

(im-YOON): The complex group of organs and cells that defends the body against infection or disease. infertility: The inability to produce children.

Intrathecal Chemotherapy

(in-tra-THEE-kal KEE-mo-THER-a-pee): Anticancer drugs that are injected into the fluid-filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.


(ma-LIG-nant): Cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Medical Oncologist

(on-KOL-o-jist): A doctor who specializes in diagnosing and treating cancer using chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and biological therapy. A medical oncologist often serves as the main caretaker of someone who has cancer and coordinates treatment provided by other specialists.


(MED-yoo-lo-blas-TOE-ma): A malignant brain tumor that begins in the lower part of the brain and can spread to the spine or to other parts of the body. Medulloblastomas are sometimes called primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET).


A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface.


(meh-NIN-jeez): The three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord.


(meh-nin-jee-O-ma): A type of tumor that occurs in the meninges, the membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas usually grow slowly.


(MEN-o-pawz): The time of life when a woman's menstrual periods stop permanently. Also called "change of life."


(meh-TAS-ta-sis): The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. Tumors formed from cells that have spread are called "secondary tumors" and contain cells that are like those in the original (primary) tumor. The plural is metastases.

MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

(mag-NET-ik REZ-o- nans IM-a-jing). A procedure in which a magnet linked to a computer is used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body.


(MYE-eh-lin): The fatty substance that covers and protects nerves.


(MYE-eh-lo-gram): An x-ray of the spinal cord after an injection of dye into the space between the lining of the spinal cord and brain.


(noo-RO-ma): A tumor that arises in nerve cells.


(NOO-ro-SER-jun): A doctor who specializes in surgery on the brain, spine, and other parts of the nervous system.


(OL-ih-go-den-dro-glee-O-ma): A rare, slow-growing tumor that begins in brain cells called oligodendrocytes, which provide support and nourishment for cells that transmit nerve impulses. Also called oligodendroglial tumor.


(pa-THOL-o-jist): A doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.

Pineal Gland

(PIN-ee-al): A tiny organ located in the cerebrum that produces melatonin. Also called pineal body or pineal organ.

Pineal Region Tumors

(pIN-ee-al...TOO-mers): Types of brain tumors that occur in or around the pineal gland, a tiny organ near the center of the brain.


(PIN-ee-o-blas-TOE-ma): A fast growing type of brain tumor that occurs in or around the pineal gland, a tiny organ near the center of the brain.


(PIN-ee-o-sye-TOE-ma): A slow growing type of brain tumor that occurs in or around the pineal gland, a tiny organ near the center of the brain.

Pituitary Gland

(pih-TOO-ih-tair-ee): The main endocrine gland; it produces hormones that control other glands and many body functions, especially growth.

Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors

(NOO-ro-ek-toe-DER-mul): PNET. A type of bone cancer that forms in the middle (shaft) of large bones. Also called Ewing's sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor.


(prog-NO-sis): The likely outcome or course of a disease; the chance of recovery or recurrence.

Radiation Oncologist

(ray-dee-AY-shun on-KOL-o-jist): A doctor who specializes in using radiation to treat cancer.

Radiation Therapy

(ray-dee-AY-shun): The use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, neutrons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external-beam radiation therapy) or from materials called radioisotopes. Radioisotopes produce radiation and can be placed in or near the tumor or in the area near cancer cells. This type of radiation treatment is called internal radiation therapy, implant radiation, interstitial radiation, or brachytherapy. Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that circulates throughout the body. Also called radiotherapy.


Drugs that make tumor cells more sensitive to radiation. recur: To occur again. Recurrence is the return of cancer, at the same site as the original (primary) tumor or in another location, after the tumor had disappeared.


A decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of cancer. In partial remission, some, but not all, signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. In complete remission, all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared, although there still may be cancer in the body.

Risk Factor

A habit, trait, condition, or genetic alteration that increases a person's chance of developing a disease.


(shwah-NO-ma): A type of benign brain tumor that begins in the Schwann cells that produce the myelin that protects the acoustic nerve (the nerve of hearing).


(SEE-zhurz): Convulsions; sudden, involuntary movements of the muscles. shunt: A surgically created diversion of fluid (e.g., blood or cerebrospinal fluid) from one area of the body to another area of the body.


(stair-ee-o-TAK-sis): Use of a computer and scanning devices to create three-dimensional pictures. This method can be used to direct a biopsy, external radiation, or the insertion of radiation implants.


(STEH-roidz): Drugs used to relieve swelling and inflammation. surgery: A procedure to remove or repair a part of the body or to find out whether disease is present.


(throm-bo-fleh-BY-tis): Inflammation of a vein that occurs when a blood clot forms.


(TISH-oo): A group or layer of cells that are alike in type and work together to perform a specific function.


(TOO-mer): An abnormal mass of tissue that results from excessive cell division. Tumors perform no useful body function. They may be benign (not cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).


(VEN-trih-kulz): Fluid-filled cavities in the heart or brain. vital: Necessary to maintain life. Breathing is a vital function. x-ray: High-energy radiation used in low doses to diagnose diseases and in high doses to treat cancer.

The Brad Kaminsky Foundation
for Brain Tumor Research
20227 Catlett Place
Ashburn, VA 20147
(703) 729-9897
E-mail DNL1231@aol.com
[The Brad Kaminsky Foundation]

The HTML Writers Guild
Notepad only